Gold octahedra nanoparticles (Au_0.03 and Au_0.045): Synthesis and impact on marine clams Ruditapes decussatus

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Fkiri, Anis
Sellami, Badreddine
Selmi, Aymen
Khazri, Abdelhafidh
Saidani, Wiem
Imen, Bouzidi
Sheehan, David
Hamouda, Beyrem
Smiri, Leila Samia
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The increased use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in several applications has led to a rise in concerns about their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. In addition, toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is related to their physical and chemical properties. In the present study, we synthesize two forms of gold octahedra nanoparticles (Au_0.03 and Au_0.045) in 1.3-propandiol with polyvinyl-pyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30) as capping agent using polyol process. Shape, size and optical properties of the particles could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of PVP K30 to metal salts. The anisotropy in nanoparticles shape shows strong localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Environmental impact of Oct-AuNPs was determined in the marine bivalve, Ruditapes decussatus exposed to different concentrations of Au_0.03 and Au_0.045. The dynamic light scattering showed the stability and resistance of Au_0.03 and Au_0.045 in the natural seawater. No significant modification in vg-like proteins, MDA level and enzymatic activities were observed in treated clams with Au_0.03 even at high concentration. In contrast, Au_0.045 induced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) activities, in a concentration dependent manner indicating defense against oxidative stress. Enhanced lipid peroxidation represented by malondialdehyde content confirmed oxidative stress of Au_0.045 at high concentration. These results highlight the importance of the physical form of nanomaterials on their interactions with marine organisms and provide a useful guideline for future use of Oct-AuNPs. In addition, Vitellogenin is shown not to be an appropriate biomarker for Oct-AuNPs contamination even at high concentration. We further show that Oct-AuNPs exhibit an important antioxidant response without inducing estrogenic disruption.
Gold nano-octahedra , Surface plasmon resonance , Ecotoxicology , Biomarkers , Biomonitoring , Oxidative stress
Fkiri, A., Sellami, B., Selmi, A., Khazri, A., Saidani, W., Imen, B., Sheehan, D., Hamouda, B. and Smiri, L. S. (2018) 'Gold Octahedra nanoparticles (Au_0.03 and Au_0.045): Synthesis and impact on marine clams Ruditapes decussatus', Aquatic Toxicology, 202, pp. 97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.07.004